Trump won a decisive victory over Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election, a new study has found.
The study, published online by the University of California, Berkeley’s Center for Politics and the Economic Studies, found Trump received 52 percent of the vote, compared with Clinton’s 35 percent.
The margin of victory is statistically insignificant, said co-author Paul Gertz, a UC Berkeley economist and an expert on election results.
The data, Gerts said, shows that Trump did not have an advantage over Clinton that could have influenced the outcome of the election.
“It is very likely that a large number of voters did not participate, and the election was not truly free and fair,” Gert-zm said in a statement.
“But the results do not indicate that turnout was disproportionately low for either candidate.
They show that turnout increased for the Republican candidate.”
Trump won 306 electoral votes, beating Clinton by 232.
The analysis found that Trump’s margin of advantage among Hispanic voters was only 2.7 percentage points larger than that of Clinton’s among African-Americans.
The researchers found that among white voters, Trump got 49.5 percent of votes, compared to Clinton’s 44.3 percent.
Trump received a higher percentage of the white vote than Clinton among white women, but the margin of win was less pronounced among white men.
Trump won fewer votes than Clinton in rural and suburban areas.
His margins of victory were smaller in urban areas and higher in cities.
Gertis and colleagues also found that Clinton did better among non-college-educated voters than Trump.
In the battleground state of Ohio, where Clinton won with nearly 3 million votes, she got 49 percent of non-educated whites, compared the candidate’s 49 percent among white college-educated women.
But Trump also won more than two-thirds of non–college–educated voters in Virginia and Pennsylvania, the researchers said.
Clinton also won fewer than half of white working-class voters in the battleground states of Pennsylvania and Virginia.
Trump’s campaign did not respond to a request for comment.
The authors of the study said they were surprised by the outcome.
“In this election, the American people voted overwhelmingly to elect a president of the United States who had no political experience and a very weak economic agenda,” Gethz said.
“We had a president who was the nominee of a major political party who had very little experience, who had an unqualified staff and a poor grasp of the economic challenges facing our country.”
In contrast, the study found that “Trump was an effective president for a large part of his tenure.”
The study looked at all 50 states in which the Electoral College is used.
In states that use an open primary system, the presidential candidate who gets the most votes is declared the winner.
Trump had about 1,800 electoral votes at the time of the 2016 election.
That’s about 0.4 percent of total votes cast.
The election was a close race until the final days.
In Virginia, Trump received about 1.3 million votes more than Clinton, according to the University at Albany’s Institute for American Politics and Politics Research.
He won about 52 percent to Clintons 46 percent.
In Pennsylvania, where Trump won more votes than any other Republican presidential candidate in history, Clinton got about 3.5 million more votes.
The state’s primary election was held May 9, with nearly 2 million votes cast in Pennsylvania and about 2 million more in the District of Columbia.
Clinton won Pennsylvania by less than 2,000 votes, but she still took the state.
Trump also was able to win in Michigan and Wisconsin.
In those states, which were held March 31 and April 3, Trump won by more than 2 million, or nearly two-to-one.
The paper’s authors said the data should be used to inform policy debates about voter turnout.
“This election has demonstrated once again that our nation needs a presidential candidate with the capacity to bring Americans together to govern, to govern in the interests of working people, and to lead by example,” Githz said in the statement.